Helminthiasis – helminthic diseases caused by helminths – round and flat, less often ringed and spiny-headed parasitic worms. Helminth infestation is characterized by a chronic course and systemic effects on the body with the development of abdominal, allergic, anemic syndrome, chronic toxemia, lung damage, liver, biliary tract, brain, visual. In the diagnosis of helminth infections are used laboratory (helminthovoskopiches
kie, helmintholarvoskopicheskie, serologic) and instrumental (X-ray, endoscopy, ultrasound, etc.) methods. Treatment of helminth infections depends on the type of parasite and includes specific (antihelminthic) and pathogenetic therapy. For some forms it helps: https://pillintrip.com/medicine/iverzine.
General informationHelminth infestations are helminthic infestations caused by different species of lower parasitic worms – helminthes. Helminthiasis have a chronic course, accompanie
d by exhaustion of the body and a decrease in its natural defenses. In the structure of helminth infections leading places belong enterobiasis, ascariasis, ankylostomiasis, trichocephalesis and toxocarosis.
According to official statistics, the incidence of helminth infestation in Russia is 1-2%, but in some regions it is 10% or more. The problem of increased helminth infestation is relevant not only to infectious diseases, but also to pediatrics, therapy, surgery, gastroenterology, dermatology, allergology, urology and other practical medical fields.
Causes of helminth infections
To date, known more than 250 pathogens of helminth infections in humans, of which about 50 species are most common. Helminths parasitizing in humans are mainly represented by roundworms (class Nematoda) and flatworms (class suckers – Trematoda and tapeworms – Cestoidea); less often people are infected by ringworms (Annelida) and scrapers (Acanthocephala). Representatives of roundworms include pinworms, ascarias, trichinellas, lupus; tapeworms include bovine, swine and dwarf chains, echinococcus, broad tapeworm; cat lance – cat louse and liver fluke.
The life cycle of helminths includes the stages of egg, larval and sexually mature forms. Depending on the peculiarities of parasitic worms development and routes of infection, helminthic diseases are divided into bihelminthiasis, geohelminthiasis and contagious (contact) helminthiasis.
Geohelminths are most roundworms (nematodes). Developmental stages of eggs and larvae of geohelminths
s in the soil under certain temperature and humidity conditions. Infection with geohelminth infections occurs when not maintaining personal hygiene, eating water contaminated with parasites, fruits, vegetables or contact with soil contaminated with feces. Geohelminth infections include such helminthic diseases as ascariasis, ankylostomiasis, trichocephaliasis, strongyloidiasis.
Biogelminths include salsa worms (trematodes) and tapeworms (cestodes), as well as some types of nematodes. To reach the invasive stage, they need a change of one or two intermediate hosts, which can act as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, insects. The causative agents of biogelminthosis enter the human body by eating meat or fish that have not been sufficiently cooked, or by drinking raw water. Representatives of biogelminthiasis are diphyllobothriosis, clonorchiasis, opistorchiasis, teniasis, teniarinchiasis, trichinellosis, fasciolosis, echinococcosis.
Contagious helminth infestations include those transmitted from person to person by personal contact, through common toilet articles, utensils, linen or by self-exposure. These are enterobiasis, hymenolepidosis, strongyloidiasis, cysticercosis.