Currently, research is underway into new therapeutic methods for small cell lung cancer.
On the one hand, new schemes and combinations with lower toxicity and higher efficiency are being developed, on the other hand, new drugs are being studied. The main purpose of the ongoing research is to increase patient survival and reduce the frequency of relapse. It is necessary to continue studying the effectiveness of new drugs with a new mechanism of action.
Lung cancer is one of the most common cancer diseases in the world. Non-small cell (NMRL) and small-cell (MRL) forms of lung cancer occur in 80-85% and 10-15% of cases, respectively. As a rule, its small cell form is most often found in smokers and very rarely in non-smokers.
MRL belongs to the most malignant tumors and is characterized by short anamnesis, rapid flow, tends to early metastasis. Small cell lung cancer is a tumor that is highly sensitive to chemotherapy, and most patients can get an objective effect. When a full regression of the tumor is achieved, prophylactic brain irradiation is performed, which reduces the risk of remote metastasis and increases the overall survival rate.
Currently, studies are underway on new therapeutic methods for small cell lung cancer. When diagnosing, it is of particular importance to assess the prevalence of the process, determining the choice of therapeutic tactics. After morphological confirmation of the diagnosis (bronchoscopy with biopsy, transthoracic puncture, biopsy of metastatic nodes), a CT scan of the chest and abdomen is performed, as well as a CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain (with contrast) and bone scanning.
Recently, there have been reports that positron emission tomography allows further clarification of the process stage.
MRI, as well as other forms of lung cancer, uses staging according to the international system of TNM, but most MRI patients already have stage III-IV at the time of diagnosis. In this regard, the classification according to which the distinction between localized and common forms of disease has not lost its significance so far.
In the localized stage of MRL, the tumor affection is limited to one hemothorax with involvement of regional ipsilateral lymph nodes of the root and mediastinum, as well as ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph nodes, when it is technically possible to perform irradiation using a single field.
A common stage of the disease is considered to be the process where the tumor affection is not limited to one hemothorax, with the presence of contralateral lymphatic metastases or tumor pleuritis.
The stage of the process determining therapeutic possibilities is the main prognostic factor in MRL.